Petroleum industries are using Nitrogen, extensively, instead of air due to its inert, non-explosive nature. It is easily applicable in high risk hydrocarbon environments. Due to its versatile nature, Nitrogen can be used in a wide variety of pipelines services and industrial plant and during drilling operations.
Fields support for oil and gas services (FSS) equipment is widely considered the industry benchmark, Capable of producing Nitrogen purity up to 99.9%. Our Nitrogen generators Field operators have built a reputation with the use of their knowledge in the field and reliability. We have exceptional engineers and industry experts who complete the project safely, economically and on time.
Our Team work with you to deploy nitrogen in a wide variety of applications, and ensure the constant supply of Nitrogen with the right equipment.
FSS Nitrogen Generators make nitrogen available when where it's needed, continuously without having to schedule and coordinate liquid nitrogen.
Fields support for oil and gas services(FSS) provides a fully integrated generators specifically designed for rapid deployment in remote locations. While other membrane systems or inert gas generators require multiple transports and long setup / breakdowns times, this system is mounted on a single trailer and already interconnected and calibrated.
These system are designed to deliver Nitrogen at remote locations where the cost of delivered liquid nitrogen (LN) is high, when the scheduling and delivery of nitrogen takes a long time, or when the requirement call for continuous service. You would never run out of nitrogen or have to terminate a job prematurely while waiting on a nitrogen bulk transport for supplemental LN. FSS nitrogen generators eliminate the troublesome logistics and timing of LN Supply while delivering nitrogen at a cost that reflects the elimination of transport costs.
Pressurizing / Pressure Testing
Nitrogen Foam Testing
Purging / De-gassing
Drying & Inerting
Nitrogen Leak Detection
Mine Seal Inerting
Enhanced Oil / Gas Lifting
Well Completion / Well Cleanout
Pressurizing / Pneumatic Testing
In some circumstances, when hydrostatic testing is not possible, pipelines, components or systems may be tested with nitrogen. However, system design specifications must be reviewed and a detailed risk analysis completed before testing with a compressible medium.
Nitrogen Foam Inerting
Nitrogen foam inerting is a simple yet effective process that enables hot work to be carried out on hydrocarbon handling systems in complete safety. The nitrogen foam is injected into a process system at a low point and allowed to completely fill the vessel and pipework, rendering the internal atmosphere inert. On completion of hot work operations, the nitrogen foam disintegrates into small amounts of water, surfactant and gaseous nitrogen. Typical foam inerting applications include vessel and pipework modification and/or replacement, hot cutting and system decommissioning.
Benefits of Nitrogen Foam Inerting:
Faster and cheaper than cold cutting alternatives
Provides a safe working environment
Hot work can be carried out in circumstances which would otherwise be impossible
Minimal personnel required
Equipment can be sited remotely from the cutting area
Fast equipment rig-up
Systems are rapidly made inert
Nitrogen foam is stable and visible
Provides operator greater confidence through visual proof of an inert atmosphere
Avoids introduction of excess water into the system
No large quantities of containment water to dispose
Purging / De-gassing
Nitrogen purging is the replacement of an undesired atmosphere by the inert gas nitrogen. During the commissioning of a process plant, the replacement of air by purging with nitrogen is known as “oxygen freeing” or “startup purging”. During a turnaround, the replacement of a hydrocarbon atmosphere with nitrogen is familiarly known as “degassing” or “shutdown purging”.
Drying & Inerting
The drying of process systems, either post-construction or subsequent to turn around hydrostatic testing, is a critical operation in many industries. Failure to ensure systems are free of moisture, or to a specific dew point, can have serious production or safety implications. Hydrate formation, pipework blockage, product impurity, the formation of corrosive chemicals, etc. can be caused by not drying to a recognized procedure and acceptance criteria.
A process system that has been “drained” of water can be dried by injecting or blowing with air or gaseous nitrogen. Nitrogen has a very low dew-point and can absorb moisture readily. FSS has a wide range of equipment suited to system drying, particularly for moisture sensitive petrochemical plants
On completion of process system or pipeline commissioning, it will occasionally be necessary to protect the system from corrosion or degradation for a period of time. As nitrogen is an inert gas, it is ideally suited for this type of operation.
Once the system is dried and cleaned, the system must be restored to tight conditions. Inert gas requires that the system being treated is tight and capable of maintaining the positive pressure of the gas. The presence of all the gas should be monitored through pressure instrumentation and is therefore considered an active method. All entry points must be labeled cautioning against personnel entry for protection against asphyxiation in low oxygen concentration spaces.
The corrosion control mechanism provided by the nitrogen is not a conversion of the existing atmosphere but rather maintenance of the cleaned atmosphere condition. This is achieved by the elimination of oxygen, a key component to most corrosion cells. Several strains of microbiological organisms do not need oxygen to survive and could therefore flourish. Where conditions not have been prepared properly at the onset of the lay-up or change over time, corrosion could initiate and remain active. Effective oxygen exclusion requires purging of the original atmosphere by repeated pressurization with nitrogen followed by venting until the oxygen concentration is less than 1%.
Nitrogen Leak Detection
Leak detection on process systems using nitrogen gas is the most accurate and quantifiable method. On an offshore production platform module, or within a petrochemical complex, the elimination of hydrocarbon leakage is of operational priority and importance. Such containment loss can lead to hazardous situations, environmental impact and huge financial loss.
Pigs are devices which are inserted into and travel throughout the length of a pipeline, propelled by water, compressed air, nitrogen or product (gas or crude). Pigs are generally listed under two (2) categories: “Utility Pigs” and “Smart Pigs”.
Utility Pigs perform functions such as filling, cleaning, and dewatering pipelines.
Smart Pigs provide information on the internal condition of the pipeline as well as the direct location of any problems inside the pipeline.
Whether you’re performing major maintenance or remedial treatments on your pipeline, using nitrogen as an inert propellant for moving “pigs” through your pipeline makes good sense. Nitrogen is the gas of choice to displace oxygen, retard oxidation, break the “fire triangle” and prevent explosions.
Mine Seal Inerting
The primary uses for nitrogen in the mining industry are extinguishing coal mine fires, or more recently to inert abandoned areas of mines. Reducing oxygen content of the combustive gases below the lower limit of explosion (LEL) is an effective method to extinguish coal mine fires. One significant benefit of nitrogen over liquids, foams or powders is an easy distribution too hard-to-reach places.
Enhanced Oil Recovery / Gas Lifting
There are a number of oil and gas recovery methods which can utilize nitrogen. They range from the simplest (pressure maintenance) process to the most complex (miscible) technique. The common factor in all of these processes is the use of nitrogen. Perhaps one of the oldest, and yet simplest methods of oil recovery (gas injection), is a growing application for nitrogen. Pressure maintenance can include immiscible displacement as well as enhanced gravity drainage. Due to nitrogen being inert and non-explosive, it is quickly replacing the usage of natural gas in the applications.
Well Completion / Well Cleanout
The use of nitrogen gas circulated into the production conduit to displace liquids and reduce the hydrostatic pressure created by the fluid column. Nitrogen lifting is a common technique used to initiate production on a well following workover or overbalanced completion. A coiled tubing string is generally used to apply the treatment, which involves running to depth while pumping high-pressure nitrogen gas. Once the kill-fluid column is unloaded and the well is capable of natural flow, the coiled tubing string is removed and the well is prepared for production.
Because nitrogen is inert and inflammable, it is the preferred gas for underbalanced drilling. The most common practice is to drill with straight dry nitrogen instead of compressed air or misted compressed air. Drilling with straight dry nitrogen can reduce total well cost by eliminating concerns about downhole fires or explosions, increasing penetration rates, improving bit life, reducing the number of drillstring trips, reducing or eliminating corrosion, and improving safety.
Nitrogen is used in well applications to reduce the weight of fluid in the wellbore. Nitrogen is pumped through coil tubing (or gas lift tubing) and discharged at the well perforations. As the nitrogen gas flows up the production casing, it expands and reduces the weight of fluid in the column, allowing the well to flow.
Gaseous nitrogen can provide performance and cost advantages over water-based fluids in certain formations. Although water-based fracturing fluids are widely used for hydraulic fracturing because they are inexpensive and offer good proppant transport into the fracture, they do have drawbacks. Water-based fluids are unsuitable for water-sensitive formations because they can cause water saturation around the fracture and clay swelling, which may significantly hinder the mass transport of hydrocarbons from the fracture to the well bore. Nitrogen gas is an excellent alternative to water-based fluids in water-sensitive formations, depleted reservoirs, and shallow formations.
Here at FSS we will provide our customers with professional technicians to perform a hydrostatic test. We will furnish all equipment necessary to pre-clean, fill, pig, test and dewater the pipeline. We will also provide the compressors, dryers and pigs to dewater and dry the line. We will also furnish the launchers and receivers’ necessary, the reports and PE certifications for the hydrotests. In the instance of a leak happening during a hydrotest, our technicians are trained to recognize, locate, and take appropriate action. We have experience in the proper sourcing of water prior to the test, and the proper disposal following the test.
Hydrostatic testing is used to determine and verify pipeline integrity. Pipelines are designed to operate at a certain maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP). Pipelines must be hydrostatically tested to ensure that it is structurally sound and can withstand the internal pressure before being put into service.
Pipelines are hydrotested by filling the test section of pipe with water and pumping the pressure up to 125% to 150% greater than the maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) and holding the pressure for a period of four (4) to eight (8) hours
After a successful hydrostatic test, water must be removed from the pipeline prior to the introduction of product. While this is sometimes performed by displacing the water directly with product, in most cases, the water is removed separately by dewatering with air. This is particularly the case where complete drying is required.
FSS provides a wide variety of air compressors to suit the project requirements. These project requirements are usually met using primary screw compressors, but if high pressure is required positive displacement booster compressors will be added to provide pressure up to 5,000 psig.